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National Land Cover Database (NLCD)

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National Land Cover Dataset 1992 (NLCD1992)

Product Legend

The classification system used by NLCD1992 is modified from the Anderson Land Cover Classification System*.

Download the NLCD1992 land cover classification legend.

Class\ ValueClassification Description
Waterareas of open water or permanent ice/snow cover.
11Open Water - areas of open water, generally with less than 25% cover of vegetation/land cover.
12Perennial Ice/Snow - areas characterized by year-long surface cover of ice and/or snow.
Developedareas characterized by a high percentage (30 % or greater) of constructed materials (e.g. asphalt, concrete, buildings, etc.).
21Low Intensity Residential - areas with a mixture of constructed materials and vegetation. Constructed materials account for 30% to 80% of the cover. Vegetation may account for 20% to 70 % of the cover. These areas most commonly include single-family housing units. Population densities will be lower than in high intensity residential areas.
22High Intensity Residential - areas highly developed where people reside in high numbers. Examples include apartment complexes and row houses. Vegetation accounts for less than 20% of the cover. Constructed materials account for 80% to100% of the cover.
23Commercial/Industrial/Transportation - areas of infrastructure (e.g. roads, railroads, etc.) and all highly developed areas not classified as High Intensity Residential
Barrenareas characterized by bare rock, gravel, sand, silt, clay, or other earthen material, with little or no "green" vegetation present regardless of its inherent ability to support life. Vegetation, if present, is more widely spaced and scrubby than that in the green vegetated categories; lichen cover may be extensive.
31Bare Rock/Sand/Clay - perennially barren areas of bedrock, desert pavement, scarps, talus, slides, volcanic material, glacial debris, beaches, and other accumulations of earthen material.
32Quarries/Strip Mines/Gravel Pits - areas of extractive mining activities with significant surface expression.
33Transitional - areas of sparse vegetative cover (less than 25% of cover) that are dynamically changing from one land cover to another, often because of land use activities. Examples include forest clear cuts, a transition phase between forest and agricultural land, the temporary clearing of vegetation, and changes due to natural causes (e.g. fire, flood, etc.).
Forestareas characterized by tree cover (natural or semi-natural woody vegetation, generally greater than 6 meters tall); tree canopy accounts for 25% to 100% of the cover.
41Deciduous Forest - areas dominated by trees where 75% or more of the tree species shed foliage simultaneously in response to seasonal change.
42Evergreen Forest - areas dominated by trees where 75% or more of the tree species maintain their leaves all year. Canopy is never without green foliage.
43Mixed Forest - areas dominated by trees where neither deciduous nor evergreen species represent more than 75% of the cover present.
Shrublandareas characterized by natural or semi-natural woody vegetation with aerial stems, generally less than 6 meters tall, with individuals or clumps not touching to interlocking. Both evergreen and deciduous species of true shrubs, young trees, and trees or shrubs that are small or stunted because of environmental conditions are included.
51Shrubland - areas dominated by shrubs; shrub canopy accounts for 25 to 100% of the cover. Shrub cover is generally greater than 25% when tree cover is less than 25%. Shrub cover may be less than 25% in cases when the cover of other life forms (e.g. herbaceous or tree) is less than 25% and shrubs cover exceeds the cover of the other life forms.
Non-natural woodyareas dominated by non-natural woody vegetation; non-natural woody vegetative canopy accounts for 25% to 100% of the cover. The non-natural woody classification is subject to the availability of sufficient ancillary data to differentiate non-natural woody vegetation from natural woody vegetation.
61Orchards/Vineyards/Other - orchards, vineyards, and other areas planted or maintained for the production of fruits, nuts, berries, or ornamentals.
Herbaceous Uplandupland areas characterized by natural or semi-natural herbaceous vegetation; herbaceous vegetation accounts for 75% to 100% of the cover.
71Grasslands/Herbaceous - areas dominated by upland grasses and forbs. In rare cases, herbaceous cover is less than 25%, but exceeds the combined cover of the woody species present. These areas are not subject to intensive management, but they are often utilized for grazing.
Planted/Cultivatedareas characterized by herbaceous vegetation that has been planted or is intensively managed for the production of food, feed, or fiber; or is maintained in developed settings for specific purposes. Herbaceous vegetation accounts for 75% to 100% of the cover.
81Pasture/Hay - areas of grasses, legumes, or grass-legume mixtures planted for livestock grazing or the production of seed or hay crops.
82Row Crops - areas used for the production of crops, such as corn, soybeans, vegetables, tobacco, and cotton.
83Small Grains - areas used for the production of graminoid crops such as wheat, barley, oats, and rice.
84Fallow - areas used for the production of crops that do not exhibit visible vegetation as a result of being tilled in a management practice that incorporates prescribed alternation between cropping and tillage.
85Urban/Recreational Grasses - vegetation (primarily grasses) planted in developed settings for recreation, erosion control, or aesthetic purposes. Examples include parks, lawns, golf courses, airport grasses, and industrial site grasses.
Wetlandsareas where the soil or substrate is periodically saturated with or covered with water as defined by Cowardin et al., (1979).
91Woody Wetlands - areas where forest or shrubland vegetation accounts for 25% to 100 % of the cover and the soil or substrate is periodically saturated with or covered with water.
92Emergent Herbaceous Wetlands - areas where perennial herbaceous vegetation accounts for 75% to 100% of the cover and the soil or substrate is periodically saturated with or covered with water.

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