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National Land Cover Dataset 1992 (NLCD1992)


Abolins, M. 2004. A student-centered regional planning group activity for non-science majors. Journal of Geoscience Education 52 (5):472-480.

Ahlqvist, O. 2010. A common framework for visually reconciling geographic data semantics in geospatial data mapping portals. Cartographica 45 (2):140-151.

Ahlqvist, Ola, and Hyowon Ban. 2007. Categorical measurement semantics: A new second space for geography. Geography Compass 1 (3):536-555.

Ahlqvist, O., and A. Shortridge. 2010. Spatial and semantic dimensions of landscape heterogeneity. Landscape Ecology 25 (4):573-590.

Ahmed, Razi, Paul Siqueira, Scott Hensley, Bruce Chapman, and Kathleen Bergen. in press. A survey of temporal decorrelation from spaceborne L-Band repeat-pass InSAR. Remote Sensing of Environment In Press, Corrected Proof.

Aillery, Marcel, Noel Gollehon, Vince Breneman, and Shawn Bucholtz. 2009. Modeling firm spatial interdependence using national data coverages: a regional application to manure management. Natural Resource Modeling 22 (1):42-66.

Alexander, Helen M., Sarah Price, Rhonda Houser, Debra Finch, and Michael Tourtellot. 2007. Is there reduction in disease and pre-dispersal seed predation at the border of a host plant's range? Field and herbarium studies of Carex blanda. Journal of Ecology 95 (3):446-457.

Alexander, R. B., and R. A. Smith. 2006. Trends in the nutrient enrichment of U.S. rivers during the late 20th century and their relation to changes in probable stream trophic conditions. Limnology and Oceanography 51 (1 II):639-654.

Alexander, R. B., R. A. Smith, and G. E. Schwarz. 2004. Estimates of diffuse phosphorus sources in surface waters of the United States using a spatially referenced watershed model. Water Science and Technology 49 (3):1-10.

Alfieri, J. G., D. Niyogi, M. A. LeMone, F. Chen, and S. Fall. 2007. A simple reclassification method for correcting uncertainty in land use/land cover data sets used with land surface models. Pure and Applied Geophysics 164 (8-9):1789-1809.

Alig, R. J., D. J. Lewis, and J. J. Swenson. 2005. Is forest fragmentation driven by the spatial configuration of land quality? The case of western Oregon. Forest Ecology and Management 217 (2-3):266-274.

Almasri, Mohammad N., and Jagath J. Kaluarachchi. 2004. Assessment and management of long-term nitrate pollution of ground water in agriculture-dominated watersheds. Review of FT in Sci Dir - no year indicated. Journal of Hydrology 295 (1-4):225-245.

Almasri, M. N., and J. J. Kaluarachchi. 2007. Modeling nitrate contamination of groundwater in agricultural watersheds. Journal of Hydrology 343 (3-4):211-229.

An, Youn-Joo, Donald H. Kampbell, Seung-Woo Jeong, Ken P. Jewell, and Jason R. Masoner. 2005. Impact of geochemical stressors on shallow groundwater quality. Science of the Total Environment 348 (1-3):257-266.

Anning, D. W., and A. D. Konieczki. 2005. Classification of hydrogeologic areas and hydrogeologic flow sytems in the Basin and Range Physiographic Province, Southwestern United States. US Geological Survey Professional Paper (1702):1-37.

Aragón, R., and M. Oesterheld. 2008. Linking vegetation heterogeneity and functional attributes of temperate grasslands through remote sensing. Applied Vegetation Science 11 (1):117-130.

Arango, C. P., and J. L. Tank. 2008. Land use influences the spatiotemporal controls on nitrification and denitrification in headwater streams. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 27 (1):90-107.

Arango, C. P., J. L. Tank, L. T. Johnson, and S. K. Hamilton. 2008. Assimilatory uptake rather than nitrification and denitrification determines nitrogen removal patterns in streams of varying land use. Limnology and Oceanography 53 (6):2558-2572.

Arno, M. G., J. R. Kercher, R. T. Cederwall, and G. A. Loosmore. 2004. Extension of NCRP 129 to short-lived radionuclides. Health Physics 87 (2):136-150.

Aspinall, Richard. 2004. Modelling land use change with generalized linear models--a multi-model analysis of change between 1860 and 2000 in Gallatin Valley, Montana. Review of FT in Sci Dir - no year indicated. Journal of Environmental Management 72 (1-2):91-103.

Ayotte, J. D., D. M. Argue, F. J. McGarry, J. R. Degnan, L. Hayes, S. M. Flanagan, and D. R. Helsel. 2008. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in public and private wells in New Hampshire: Occurrence, factors, and possible implications. Environmental Science and Technology 42 (3):677-684.

Ayotte, J. D., B. T. Nolan, J. R. Nuckols, K. P. Cantor, G. R. Robinson Jr, D. Baris, L. Hayes, M. Karagas, W. Bress, D. T. Silverman, and J. H. Lubin. 2006. Modeling the probability of arsenic in groundwater in New England as a tool for exposure assessment. Environmental Science and Technology 40 (11):3578-3585.

Baker, Matthew E., Donald E. Weller, and Thomas E. Jordan. 2006. Improved methods for quantifying potential nutrient interception by riparian buffers. Landscape Ecology 21 (8):1327-1345.

Bakermans, Marja H., and Amanda D. Rodewald. 2006. Scale-fependent habitat use of acadian flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) in central Ohio. Auk 123 (2):368-382.

Ban, H., and O. Ahlqvist. 2009. Representing and negotiating uncertain geospatial concepts - Where are the exurban areas? Computers, Environment and Urban Systems 33 (4):233-246.

Beeri, O., R. Phillips, J. Hendrickson, A. B. Frank, and S. Kronberg. 2007. Estimating forage quantity and quality using aerial hyperspectral imagery for northern mixed-grass prairie. Remote Sensing of Environment 110 (2):216-225.

Bell, A. H., and B. C. Scudder. 2007. Mercury accumulation in periphyton of eight river ecosystems. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 43 (4):957-968.

Bell, Amanda H., and Barbara C. Scudder. 2007. Mercury accumulation in periphyton of eight river ecosystems. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 43 (4):957-968.

BenDor, T., J. Westervelt, J. P. Aurambout, and W. Meyer. 2009. Simulating population variation and movement within fragmented landscapes: An application to the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus). Ecological Modelling 220 (6):867-878.

Bentrup, G., and T. Kellerman. 2004. Where should buffers go? Modeling riparian habitat connectivity in northeast Kansas. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 59 (5):209-215.

Bergamaschi, P., C. Frankenberg, J. F. Meirink, M. Krol, F. Dentener, T. Wagner, U. Platt, J. O. Kaplan, S. Körner, M. Heimann, E. J. Dlugokencky, and A. Goede. 2007. Satellite chartography of atmospheric methane from SCIAMACHY on board ENVISAT: 2. Evaluation based on inverse model simulations. Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres 112 (D2):D02304.

Bergen, K. M., A. M. Gilboy, and D. G. Brown. 2007. Multi-dimensional vegetation structure in modeling avian habitat. Ecological Informatics 2 (1):9-22.

Bhattarai, G., P. Srivastava, L. Marzen, D. Hite, and U. Hatch. 2008. Assessment of economic and water quality impacts of land use change using a simple bioeconomic model. Environmental Management 42 (1):122-131.

Bierwagen, B. G. 2005. Predicting ecological connectivity in urbanizing landscapes. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 32 (5):763-776.

Birk, Ronald J., Thomas Stanley, Gregory I. Snyder, Thomas A. Hennig, Matthew M. Fladeland, and Fritz Policelli. 2003. Government programs for research and operational uses of commercial remote sensing data. Review of FT in Sci Dir - no year indicated. Remote Sensing of Environment 88 (1-2):3-16.

Blackard, J. A., M. V. Finco, E. H. Helmer, G. R. Holden, M. L. Hoppus, D. M. Jacobs, A. J. Lister, G. G. Moisen, M. D. Nelson, R. Riemann, B. Ruefenacht, D. Salajanu, D. L. Weyermann, K. C. Winterberger, T. J. Brandeis, R. L. Czaplewski, R. E. McRoberts, P. L. Patterson, and R. P. Tymcio. 2008. Mapping U.S. forest biomass using nationwide forest inventory data and moderate resolution information. Remote Sensing of Environment 112 (4):1658-1677.

Bodamer, B. L., and M. L. Ostrofsky. 2010. The use of aquatic plants by populations of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae) in a small glacial lake. Nautilus 124 (2):100-106.

Bossong, Clifford R., and Andrea C. Fleming. 2008. Summary and evaluation of the quality of stormwater in Denver, Colorado, October 2001 to October 2005. In Scientific Investigations Report. Reston: U. S. Geological Survey.

Boulanger, J. R., L. L. Bigler, P. D. Curtis, D. H. Lein, and A. J. Lembo Jr. 2006. A Polyvinyl chloride bait station for dispensing rabies vaccine to raccoons in suburban landscapes. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34 (4):1206-1211.

Boyer, E. W., C. L. Goodale, N. A. Jaworski, and R. W. Howarth. 2002. Anthropogenic nitrogen sources and relationships to riverine nitrogen export in the northeastern U.S.A. Biogeochemistry 57-58:137-169.

Bramblett, R. G., T. R. Johnson, A. V. Zale, and D. G. Heggem. 2005. Development and evaluation of a fish assemblage index of biotic integrity for northwestern Great Plains streams. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 134 (3):624-640.

Bressler, David W., Michael J. Paul, Alison H. Purcell, Michael T. Barbour, Ed T. Rankin, and Vincent H. Resh. 2009. Assessment tools for urban catchments: developing stressor gradients. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 45 (2):291-305.

Brewer, C. K., J. C. Winne, R. L. Redmond, D. W. Opitz, and M. V. Mangrich. 2005. Classifying and mapping wildfire severity: A comparison of methods. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 71 (11):1311-1320.

Brooks, R., M. McKenney-Easterling, M. Brinson, R. Rheinhardt, K. Havens, D. O'Brien, J. Bishop, J. Rubbo, B. Armstrong, and J. Hite. 2009. A Stream-Wetland-Riparian (SWR) index for assessing condition of aquatic ecosystems in small watersheds along the Atlantic slope of the eastern U.S. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 150 (1-4):101-117.

Brown, Thomas C., Michael T. Hobbins, and Jorge A. Ramirez. 2008. Spatial distribution of water supply in the coterminous United States. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 44 (6):1474-1487.

Bruns, D. A. 2005. Macroinvertebrate response to land cover, habitat, and water chemistry in a mining-impacted river ecosystem: A GIS watershed analysis. Aquatic Sciences 67 (4):403-423.

Bryce, S. A. 2006. Development of a bird integrity index: Measuring avian response to disturbance in the Blue Mountains of Oregon, USA. Environmental Management 38 (3):470-486.

Buchanan, B. 2003. The effects of sample bias on paleoindian fluted point recovery in the United States. North American Archaeologist 24 (4):311-338.

Buckley, Lauren B. 2010. The range implications of lizard traits in changing environments. Global Ecology and Biogeography 19 (4):452-464.

Bunce, R. G. H., M. J. Metzger, R. H. G. Jongman, J. Brandt, G. De Blust, R. Elena-Rossello, G. B. Groom, L. Halada, G. Hofer, D. C. Howard, P. Kovár, C. A. Mücher, E. Padoa-Schioppa, D. Paelinx, A. Palo, M. Perez-Soba, I. L. Ramos, P. Roche, H. Skânes, and T. Wrbka. 2008. A standardized procedure for surveillance and monitoring European habitats and provision of spatial data. Landscape Ecology 23 (1):11-25.

Bunya, S., J. C. Dietrich, J. J. Westerink, B. A. Ebersole, J. M. Smith, J. H. Atkinson, R. Jensen, D. T. Resio, R. A. Luettich, C. Dawson, V. J. Cardone, A. T. Cox, M. D. Powell, H. J. Westerink, and H. J. Roberts. 2010. A high-resolution coupled riverine flow, tide, wind, wind wave, and storm surge model for southern Louisiana and Mississippi. Part I: Model development and validation. Monthly Weather Review 138 (2):345-377.

Burchfield, M., H. G. Overman, D. Puga, and M. A. Turner. 2006. Causes of sprawl: A portrait from space. Quarterly Journal of Economics 121 (2):587-633.

Burroughs, J. P., H. Campa Iii, S. R. Winterstein, B. A. Rudolph, and W. E. Moritz. 2006. Cause-specific mortality and survival of white-tailed deer fawns in southwestern lower Michigan. Journal of Wildlife Management 70 (3):743-751.

Butler, B. J., J. J. Swenson, and R. J. Alig. 2004. Forest fragmentation in the Pacific Northwest: Quantification and correlations. Forest Ecology and Management 189 (1-3):363-373.

Card, D., A. Mas, and J. Rothstein. 2008. Tipping and the dynamics of segregation. Quarterly Journal of Economics 123 (1):177-218. Cardille, J., M. Turner, M. Clayton, S. Gergel, and S. Price. 2005. METALAND: Characterizing spatial patterns and statistical context of landscape metrics. BioScience 55 (11):983-988.

Carlisle, D. M., J. Falcone, and M. R. Meador. 2009. Predicting the biological condition of streams: Use of geospatial indicators of natural and anthropogenic characteristics of watersheds. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 151 (1-4):143-160.

Carlisle, D. M., J. Falcone, D. M. Wolock, M. R. Meador, and R. H. Norris. 2010. Predicting the natural flow regime: Models for assessing hydrological alteration in streams. River Research and Applications 26 (2):118-136.

Carlisle, D. M., and M. R. Meador. 2007. A biological assessment of streams in the eastern United States using a predictive model for macroinvertebrate assemblages. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 43 (5):1194-1207.

Carrão, H., A. Araújo, P. Gonçalves, and M. Caetano. 2010. Multitemporal MERIS images for land-cover mapping at a national scale: A case study of Portugal. International Journal of Remote Sensing 31 (8):2063-2082.

Carrió, G. G., W. R. Cotton, and W. Y. Y. Cheng. 2010. Urban growth and aerosol effects on convection over Houston. Part I: The August 2000 case. Atmospheric Research 96 (4):560-574.

Carter, J. L., and S. V. Fend. 2005. Setting limits: The development and use of factor-ceiling distributions for an urban assessment using macroinvertebrates. American Fisheries Society Symposium 2005 (47):179-191.

Carter, James L., and Vincent H. Resh. 2005. Pacific Coast rivers of the coterminous United States. In Rivers of North America, edited by C. B. Arthur and E. C. Colbert. Burlington: Academic Press.

Carter, J. M., S. J. Grady, G. C. Delzer, B. Koch, and J. S. Zogorski. 2006. Occurrence of MTBE and other gasoline oxygenates in CWS source waters. Journal / American Water Works Association 98 (4):91-104+10.

Castellano, P. J., T. A. Volk, and L. P. Herrington. 2009. Estimates of technically available woody biomass feedstock from natural forests and willow biomass crops for two locations in New York State. Biomass and Bioenergy 33 (3):393-406.

Castilla, G., and G. J. Hay. 2007. Uncertainties in land use data. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 11 (6):1857-1868.

Cavalli, R. M., G. Laneve, L. Fusilli, S. Pignatti, and F. Santini. 2009. Remote sensing water observation for supporting Lake Victoria weed management. Journal of Environmental Management 90 (7):2199-2211.

Caylor, K. K., S. Manfreda, and I. Rodriguez-Iturbe. 2005. On the coupled geomorphological and ecohydrological organization of river basins. Advances in Water Resources 28 (1):69-86.

Caylor, K. K., T. M. Scanlon, and I. Rodriguez-Iturbe. 2004. Feasible optimality of vegetation patterns in river basins. Geophysical Research Letters 31 (13):L13502 1-4.

Ceplecha, Z. L., R. M. Waskom, T. A. Bauder, J. L. Sharkoff, and R. Khosla. 2004. Vulnerability assessments of Colorado ground water to nitrate contamination. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 159 (1):373-394.

Chalmers, A. T., D. M. Argue, D. A. Gay, M. E. Brigham, C. J. Schmitt, and D. L. Lorenz. 2011. Mercury trends in fish from rivers and lakes in the United States, 1969-2005. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 175 (1-4):175-191.

Chander, G., B. L. Markham, and D. L. Helder. 2009. Summary of current radiometric calibration coefficients for Landsat MSS, TM, ETM+, and EO-1 ALI sensors. Remote Sensing of Environment 113 (5):893-903.

Chang, Heejun. 2004. Water quality impacts of climate and land use changes in southeastern Pennsylvania. The Professional Geographer 56 (2):240-257.

Chastain Jr, R. A., W. S. Currie, and P. A. Townsend. 2006. Carbon sequestration and nutrient cycling implications of the evergreen understory layer in Appalachian forests. Forest Ecology and Management 231 (1-3):63-77.

Chastain Jr, R. A., and P. A. Townsend. 2007. Use of Landsat ETM and topographic data to characterize evergreen understory communities in Appalachian deciduous forests. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 73 (5):563-575.

Chen, Fei, Hiroyuki Kusaka, Robert Bornstein, Jason Ching, C. S. B. Grimmond, Susanne Grossman-Clarke, Thomas Loridan, Kevin W. Manning, Alberto Martilli, Shiguang Miao, David Sailor, Francisco P. Salamanca, Haider Taha, Mukul Tewari, Xuemei Wang, Andrzej A. Wyszogrodzki, and Chaolin Zhang. 2011. The integrated WRF/urban modelling system: development, evaluation, and applications to urban environmental problems. International Journal of Climatology 31 (2):273-288.

Chen, Jin, Xiaolin Zhu, James E. Vogelmann, Feng Gao, and Suming Jin. 2011. A simple and effective method for filling gaps in Landsat ETM+ SLC-off images. Remote Sensing of Environment 115 (4):1053-1064.

Chen, M., W. Su, L. Li, C. Zhang, A. Yue, and H. Li. 2009. Comparison of pixel-based and object-oriented knowledge-based classification methods using SPOT5 imagery. WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications 6 (3):477-489.

Chen, P. Y., M. Di Luzio, and J. G. Arnold. 2006. Spatial agreement between two land-cover data sets stratified by agricultural eco-regions. International Journal of Remote Sensing 27 (15):3223-3238.

Chen, P. Y., M. D. Luzio, and J. G. Arnold. 2005. Spatial assessment of two widely used land-cover datasets over the continental U.S. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 43 (10):2396-2404.

Cho, Huidae, and Francisco Olivera. 2009. Effect of the spatial variability of land use, soil type, and precipitation on streamflows in small watersheds. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 45 (3):673-686.

Cho, S. H., S. G. Kim, R. K. Roberts, and S. Jung. 2009. Amenity values of spatial configurations of forest landscapes over space and time in the Southern Appalachian Highlands. Ecological Economics 68 (10):2646-2657.

Choi, J., and J. C. Seong. 2008. Length-preserving thinning algorithm for line extraction from landcover data. Cartographica 43 (4):257-266.

Choi, W. 2007. Estimating land-use change impacts on direct runoff and non-point source pollutant loads in the Richland Creek basin (Illinois, USA) by applying the L-THIA model. Journal of Spatial Hydrology 7 (1):47-65.

Cihlar, J., B. Guindon, J. Beaubien, R. Latifovic, D. Peddle, M. Wulder, R. Fernandes, and J. Kerr. 2003. From need to product: A methodology for completing a land cover map of Canada with Landsat data. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 29 (2):171-186.

Claggett, Peter R., Judy A. Okay, and Stephen V. Stehman. 2010. Monitoring regional riparian forest cover change using stratified sampling and multiresolution imagery. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 46 (2):334-343.

Cleve, C., M. Kelly, F. R. Kearns, and M. Moritz. 2008. Classification of the wildland-urban interface: A comparison of pixel- and object-based classifications using high-resolution aerial photography. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems 32 (4):317-326.

Cohen, W. B., and S. N. Goward. 2004. Landsat's role in ecological applications of remote sensing. BioScience 54 (6):535-545.

Coles, J. F., T. F. Cuffney, G. McMahon, and K. M. Beaulieu. 2004. The effects of urbanization on the biological, physical, and chemical characteristics of coastal New England streams. US Geological Survey Professional Paper (1695):1-47.

Cooper, D. J., J. Dickens, N. T. Hobbs, L. Christensen, and L. Landrum. 2006. Hydrologic, geomorphic and climatic processes controlling willow establishment in a montane ecosystem. Hydrological Processes 20 (8):1845-1864.

Cornell, K. L., and T. M. Donovan. 2010. Effects of spatial habitat heterogeneity on habitat selection and annual fecundity for a migratory forest songbird. Landscape Ecology 25 (1):109-122.

Cornell, Kerri L., and Therese M. Donovan. 2010. Scale-dependent mechanisms of habitat selection for a migratory passerine: An experimental approach. Auk 127 (4):899-908.

Costanza, R., O. Pérez-Maqueo, M. L. Martinez, P. Sutton, S. J. Anderson, and K. Mulder. 2008. The value of coastal wetlands for hurricane protection. Ambio 37 (4):241-248.

Coulston, J. W., and K. H. Riitters. 2003. Geographic analysis of forest health indicators using spatial scan statistics. Environmental Management 31 (6):764-773.

Couturier, S. 2010. A fuzzy-based method for the regional validation of global maps: The case of MODIS-derived phenological classes in a mega-diverse zone. International Journal of Remote Sensing 31 (22):5797-5811.

Couturier, S., J. P. Gastellu-Etchegorry, P. Patiño, and E. Martin. 2009. A model-based performance test for forest classifiers on remote-sensing imagery. Forest Ecology and Management 257 (1):23-37.

Couturier, S., J. F. Mas, G. Cuevas, J. Benítez, Á Vega-Guzmán, and V. Coria-Tapia. 2009. An accuracy index with positional and thematic fuzzy bounds for land-use/land-cover maps. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 75 (7):789-805.

Couturier, S., J. F. Mas, E. López-Granados, J. Benítez, V. Coria-Tapia, and T. Vega-Guzmán. 2010. Accuracy assessment of the Mexican National Forest Inventory map: A study in four ecogeographical areas. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 31 (2):163-179.

Couturier, S., A. Vega, J. F. Mas, V. Tapia, and E. López-Granados. 2008. Accuracy assessment of the national forest inventory map of mexico: Sampling designs and the fuzzy characterization of landscapes. Investigaciones Geograficas 67:20-38.

Cova, T. J., P. C. Sutton, and D. M. Theobald. 2004. Exurban change detection in fire-prone areas with nighttime satellite imagery. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 70 (11):1249-1257.

Crawford, T. W., and R. K. Wilson. 2005. Multi-scale analysis of collaborative national forest planning contexts in the rural US Mountain West. Population and Environment 26 (5):397-426.

Creswell, Joel E., Sara C. Kerr, Matthew H. Meyer, Christopher L. Babiarz, Martin M. Shafer, David E. Armstrong, and Eric E. Roden. 2008. Factors controlling temporal and spatial distribution of total mercury and methylmercury in hyporheic sediments of the Allequash Creek wetland, northern Wisconsin. Journal of Geophysical Research G: Biogeosciences 113:G00C02.

Cronan, C. S., R. J. Lilieholm, J. Tremblay, and T. Glidden. 2010. An assessment of land conservation patterns in maine based on spatial analysis of ecological and socioeconomic indicators. Environmental Management 45 (5):1076-1095.

Cunha, L. K., W. F. Krajewski, R. Mantilla, and L. Cunha. 2011. A framework for flood risk assessment under nonstationary conditions or in the absence of historical data. Journal of Flood Risk Management 4 (1):3-22.

Cunningham, M. A. 2006. Accuracy assessment of digitized and classified land cover data for wildlife habitat. Landscape and Urban Planning 78 (3):217-228.

Danz, N. P., G. J. Niemi, R. R. Regal, T. Hollenhorst, L. B. Johnson, J. M. Hanowski, R. P. Axler, J. J. H. Ciborowski, T. Hrabik, V. J. Brady, J. R. Kelly, J. A. Morrice, J. C. Brazner, R. W. Howe, C. A. Johnston, and G. E. Host. 2007. Integrated measures of anthropogenic stress in the U.S. Great Lakes basin. Environmental Management 39 (5):631-647.

Danz, N. P., R. R. Regal, G. J. Niemi, V. J. Brady, T. Hollenhorst, L. B. Johnson, G. E. Host, J. M. Hanowski, C. A. Johnston, T. Brown, J. Kingston, and J. R. Kelly. 2005. Environmentally stratified sampling design for the development of Great Lakes environmental indicators. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 102 (1-3):41-65.

Davey, C. A., R. A. Pielke Sr, and K. P. Gallo. 2006. Differences between near-surface equivalent temperature and temperature trends for the Eastern United States. Equivalent temperature as an alternative measure of heat content. Global and Planetary Change 54 (1-2):19-32.

Deal, Brian, and Daniel Schunk. 2004. Spatial dynamic modeling and urban land use transformation: a simulation approach to assessing the costs of urban sprawl. Review of FT in Sci Dir - no year indicated. Ecological Economics 51 (1-2):79-95.

DeBoer, T. S., and D. D. Diamond. 2006. Predicting presence-absence of the endangered golden-cheeked warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia). Southwestern Naturalist 51 (2):181-190.

DeLiberty, T. L., and D. R. Legates. 2003. Interannual and seasonal variability of modelled soil moisture in Oklahoma. International Journal of Climatology 23 (9):1057-1086.

Dennehy, K. F., D. W. Litke, and P. B. McMahon. 2002. The High Plains Aquifer, USA: Groundwater development and sustainability. Geological Society Special Publication:99-119.

Detenbeck, N. E., D. Cincotta, J. M. Denver, S. K. Greenlee, A. R. Olsen, and A. M. Pitchford. 2005. Watershed-based survey designs. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 103 (1-3):59-81.

Detenbeck, N. E., and D. A. Cincotta. 2008. Comparability of a regional and state survey: Effects on fish IBI assessment for West Virginia, U.S.A. Hydrobiologia 603 (1):279-300.

Devereux, Olivia H., Karen L. Prestegaard, Brian A. Needelman, and Allen C. Gellis. 2010. Suspended-sediment sources in an urban watershed, Northeast Branch Anacostia River, Maryland. Hydrological Processes 24 (11):1391-1403.

Di Luzio, M., and J. G. Arnold. 2004. Formulation of a hybrid calibration approach for a physically based distributed model with NEXRAD data input. Journal of Hydrology 298 (1-4):136-154.

Di Luzio, M., J. G. Arnold, and R. Srinivasan. 2004. Integration of SSURGO maps and soil parameters within a geographic information system and nonpoint source pollution model system. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 59 (4):123-133.

Di Luzio, M., R. Srinivasan, and J. G. Arnold. 2004. A GIS-coupled hydrological model system for the watershed assessment of agricultural nonpoint and point sources of pollution. Transactions in GIS 8 (1):113-136.

Diamond, D. D., T. M. Gordon, C. D. True, R. D. Lea, and W. E. Foster. 2003. An ecoregion-based conservation assessment and conservation opportunity area inventory for the lower midwestern USA. Natural Areas Journal 23 (2):129-140.

Diaz-Ramirez, J. N., V. J. Alarcon, Z. Duan, M. L. Tagert, W. McAnally, J. L. Martin, and C. G. O'Hara. 2008. Impacts of land use characterization in modeling hydrology and sediments for the Luxapallila Creek watershed, Alabama and Mississippi. Transactions of the ASABE 51 (1):139-151.

Dietz, R. W., and B. Czech. 2005. Conservation deficits for the continental United States: An ecosystem gap analysis. Conservation Biology 19 (5):1478-1487.

Dilling, L., S. C. Doney, J. Edmonds, K. R. Gurney, R. Harriss, D. Schimel, B. Stephens, and G. Stokes. 2003. The role of carbon cycle observations and knowledge in carbon management. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 28:521-558.

Diodato, N., and G. Bellocchi. 2008. Modelling vegetation greenness responses to climate variability in a Mediterranean terrestrial ecosystem. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 143 (1-3):147-159.

Doherty, J., and J. M. Johnston. 2003. Methodologies for calibration and predictive analysis of a watershed model. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 39 (2):251-265.

Downs, Joni A., Robert J. Gates, and Alan T. Murray. 2008. Estimating carrying capacity for sandhill cranes using habitat suitability and spatial optimization models. Ecological Modelling 214 (2-4):284-292.

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Haslem, A., K. E. Callister, S. C. Avitabile, P. A. Griffioen, L. T. Kelly, D. G. Nimmo, L. M. Spence-Bailey, R. S. Taylor, S. J. Watson, L. Brown, A. F. Bennett, and M. F. Clarke. 2010. A framework for mapping vegetation over broad spatial extents: A technique to aid land management across jurisdictional boundaries. Landscape and Urban Planning 97 (4):296-305.

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Heimann, D. C., and H. M. Krempa. 2011. Cumulative effects of impoundments on the hydrology of riparian wetlands along the Marmaton River, West-Central Missouri, USA. Wetlands 31 (1):135-146.

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Hilli, M., and M. T. Kuitunen. 2005. Testing the use of a land cover map for habitat ranking in boreal forests. Environmental Management 35 (4):505-516.

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Hollister, J. W., M. L. Gonzalez, J. F. Paul, P. V. August, and J. L. Copeland. 2004. Assessing the accuracy of national land cover dataset area estimates at multiple spatial extents. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 70 (4):405-414.

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Horowitz, A. J., and V. C. Stephens. 2008. The effect of increasing urbanization and population density on the concentrations of sediment-associated constituents for the conterminous USA. Paper read at IAHS-AISH Publication.

Host, G. E., J. Schuldt, J. J. H. Ciborowski, L. B. Johnson, T. Hollenhorst, and C. Richards. 2005. Use of GIS and remotely sensed data for a priori identification of reference areas for Great Lakes coastal ecosystems. International Journal of Remote Sensing 26 (23):5325-5342.

Howard, Stephen M., James E. Vogelmann, Jennifer B. Sieverling, Stephen J. Char, and Carma A. San Juan. 2005. The National Land-Cover Dataset. In Scientific Investigations Report, Report: SIR 2005-5117. Reston: U. S. Geological Survey.

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Van Metre, P. C., and B. J. Mahler. 2004. Contaminant trends in reservoir sediment cores as records of influent stream quality. Environmental Science and Technology 38 (11):2978-2986.

Vecchia, A. V., R. J. Gilliom, D. J. Sullivan, D. L. Lorenz, and J. D. Martin. 2009. Trends in concentrations and use of agricultural herbicides for Corn Belt rivers, 1996-2006. Environmental Science and Technology 43 (24):9096-9102.

Velázquez, A., J. F. Mas, G. Bocco, and J. L. Palacio-Prieto. 2010. Mapping land cover changes in Mexico, 1976-2000 and applications for guiding environmental management policy. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 31 (2):152-162.

Vogelmann, J. E., and T. P. DeFelice. 2003. Characterization of intra-annual reflectance properties of land cover classes in southeastern South Dakota using Landsat TM and ETM+ data. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 29 (2):219-229.

Vogelmann, J. E., S. M. Howard, L. M. Yang, C. R. Larson, B. K. Wylie, and N. Van Driel. 2001. Completion of the 1990s National Land Cover Data set for the conterminous United States from Landsat Thematic Mapper data and Ancillary data sources. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 67 (6):650-+.

Vogelmann, J. E., T. L. Sohl, P. V. Campbell, and D. M. Shaw. 1998. Regional land cover characterization using Landsat thematic mapper data and ancillary data sources. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 51 (1).

Volstad, J. H., N. E. Roth, G. Mercurio, M. T. Southerland, and D. E. Strebel. 2003. Using environmental stressor information to predict the ecological status of Maryland non-tidal streams as measured by biological indicators. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 84 (3):219-242.

Wade, Alisa A., and David M. Theobald. 2010. Residential development encroachment on U.S. protected areas. Conservation Biology 24 (1):151-161.

Wade, T. G., K. H. Riitters, J. D. Wickham, and K. B. Jones. 2003. Distribution and causes of global forest fragmentation. Conservation Ecology 7 (2).

Wade, T. G., J. D. Wickham, M. S. Nash, A. C. Neale, K. H. Riitters, and K. B. Jones. 2003. A comparison of vector and raster GIS methods for calculating landscape metrics used in environmental assessments. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 69 (12):1399-1405.

Wagner, R. C., T. A. Dillaha, and G. Yagow. 2007. An assessment of the reference watershed approach for TMDLs with biological impairments. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 181 (1-4):341-354.

Wagner, Tyler, Patricia A. Soranno, Katherine E. Webster, and Kendra Spence Cheruvelil. 2011. Landscape drivers of regional variation in the relationship between total phosphorus and chlorophyll in lakes. Freshwater Biology:no-no.

Walters, D. M., M. J. Blum, B. Rashleigh, B. J. Freeman, B. A. Porter, and N. M. Burkhead. 2008. Red shiner invasion and hybridization with blacktail shiner in the upper Coosa River, USA. Biological Invasions 10 (8):1229-1242.

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Wang, Fugui, Y. Jun Xu, and Thomas J. Dean. 2011. Projecting climate change effects on forest net primary productivity in subtropical Louisiana, USA. Ambio.

Wang, Ruoyu, and Latif Kalin. 2011. Modelling effects of land use/cover changes under limited data. Ecohydrology 4 (2):265-276.

Wang, X., and A. M. Melesse. 2006. Effects of STATSGO and SSURGO as inputs on SWAT model's snowmelt simulation. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 42 (5):1217-1236.

Ward, G. Milton, Phillip M. Harris, and Amelia K. Ward. 2005. Gulf coast rivers of the southeastern United States. In Rivers of North America, edited by C. B. Arthur and E. C. Colbert. Burlington: Academic Press.

Wardlow, B. D., and S. L. Egbert. 2003. A state-level comparative analysis of the GAP and NLCD land-cover data sets. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 69 (12):1387-1397.

Warner, K. A., J. C. J. Bonzongo, E. E. Roden, G. M. Ward, A. C. Green, I. Chaubey, W. B. Lyons, and D. A. Arrington. 2005. Effect of watershed parameters on mercury distribution in different environmental compartments in the Mobile Alabama River Basin, USA. Science of the Total Environment 347 (1-3):187-207.

Watrous, K. S., T. M. Donovan, R. M. Mickey, S. R. Darling, A. C. Hicks, and S. L. Von Oettingen. 2006. Predicting minimum habitat characteristics for the Indiana bat in the Champlain Valley. Journal of Wildlife Management 70 (5):1228-1237.

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West, T. O., C. C. Brandt, B. S. Wilson, C. M. Hellwinckel, D. D. Tyler, G. Marland, D. G. De La Torre Ugarte, J. A. Larson, and R. G. Nelson. 2008. Estimating regional changes in soil carbon with high spatial resolution. Soil Science Society of America Journal 72 (2):285-294.

Westerink, J. J., R. A. Luettich, J. C. Feyen, J. H. Atkinson, C. Dawson, H. J. Roberts, M. D. Powell, J. P. Dunion, E. J. Kubatko, and H. Pourtaheri. 2008. A basin- to channel-scale unstructured grid hurricane storm surge model applied to southern Louisiana. Monthly Weather Review 136 (3):833-864.

Westervelt, J., T. BenDor, and J. Sexton. 2011. A technique for rapidly forecasting regional urban growth. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 38 (1):61-81.

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Whittaker, G., R. Confesor Jr, M. Di Luzio, and J. G. Arnold. 2010. Detection of overparameterization and overfitting in an automatic calibration of SWAT. Transactions of the ASABE 53 (5):1487-1499.

Wichansky, P. S., L. T. Steyaert, R. L. Walko, and C. P. Waever. 2008. Evaluating the effects of historical land cover change on summertime weather and climate in New Jersey: Land cover and surface energy budget changes. Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres 113 (10).

Wickham, James D., Maltha S. Nash, Timothy G. Wade, and Lee Currey. 2006. Statewide empirical modeling of bacterial contamination of surface waters. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 42 (3):583-591.

Wickham, J. D., S. V. Stehman, J. A. Fry, J. H. Smith, and C. G. Homer. 2010. Thematic accuracy of the NLCD 2001 land cover for the conterminous United States. Remote Sensing of Environment 114 (6):1286-1296.

Wickham, J. D., S. V. Stehman, J. H. Smith, T. G. Wade, and L. Yang. 2004. A priori evaluation of two-stage cluster sampling for accuracy assessment of large-area land-cover maps. International Journal of Remote Sensing 25 (6):1235-1252.

Wickham, J. D., S. V. Stehman, J. H. Smith, and L. Yang. 2004. Thematic accuracy of the 1992 National Land-Cover Data for the western United States. Remote Sensing of Environment 91 (3-4):452-468.

Wickham, James D., and Timothy G. Wade. 2002. Watershed level risk assessment of nitrogen and phosphorus export. Review of FT in Sci Dir - no year indicated. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 37 (1-3):15-24.

Wickham, J. D., T. G. Wade, K. H. Riitters, R. V. O'Neill, J. H. Smith, E. R. Smith, K. B. Jones, and A. C. Neale. 2003. Upstream-to-downstream changes in nutrient export risk. Landscape Ecology 18 (2):193-206.

Wilhere, G. F., M. J. Linders, and B. L. Cosentino. 2007. Defining alternative futures and projecting their effects on the spatial distribution of wildlife habitats. Landscape and Urban Planning 79 (3-4):385-400.

Williams, J. W., E. W. Seabloom, D. Slayback, D. M. Stoms, and J. H. Viers. 2005. Anthropogenic impacts upon plant species richness and net primary productivity in California. Ecology Letters 8 (2):127-137.

Williamson, Tanja N., and Charles G. Crawford. 2011. Estimation of suspended-sediment concentration from total suspended solids and turbidity data for Kentucky, 1978-1995. Journal of the American Water Resources Association:no-no.

Wilson, J. W. 2005. Historical and computational analysis of long-term environmental change: Forests in tne Shenandoah Valley of Virginia. Historical Geography 33:33-53.

Wimberly, M. C. 2004. Fire and forest landscapes in the Georgia Piedmont: An assessment of spatial modeling assumptions. Ecological Modelling 180 (1):41-56.

Wimberly, M. C., M. J. Yabsley, A. D. Baer, V. G. Dugan, and W. R. Davidson. 2008. Spatial heterogeneity of climate and land-cover constraints on distributions of tick-borne pathogens. Global Ecology and Biogeography 17 (2):189-202.

Wolman, Harold, George Galster, Royce Hanson, Michael Ratcliffe, Kimberly Furdell, and Andrea Sarzynski. 2005. The fundamental challenge in measuring sprawl: which land should be considered? The Professional Geographer 57 (1):94-105.

Wolter, P. T., C. A. Johnston, and G. J. Niemi. 2006. Land use land cover change in the U.S. Great Lakes basin 1992 to 2001. Journal of Great Lakes Research 32 (3):607-628.

Wood, D. M., D. Parry, R. D. Yanai, and N. E. Pitel. 2010. Forest fragmentation and duration of forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria Hübner) outbreaks in northern hardwood forests. Forest Ecology and Management 260 (7):1193-1197.

Woodall, C. W., J. J. Charney, G. C. Liknes, and B. E. Potter. 2005. What is the fire danger now? Linking fuel inventories with atmospheric data. Journal of Forestry 103 (6):293-298.

Woodall, C. W., and L. M. Nagel. 2006. Coarse woody type: A new method for analyzing coarse woody debris and forest change. Forest Ecology and Management 227 (1-2):115-121.

Woodall, C. W., C. H. Perry, and P. D. Miles. 2006. The relative density of forests in the United States. Forest Ecology and Management 226 (1-3):368-372.

Wright, C., and A. Gallant. 2007. Improved wetland remote sensing in Yellowstone National Park using classification trees to combine TM imagery and ancillary environmental data. Remote Sensing of Environment 107 (4):582-605.

Wright, M. T., and K. Belitz. 2010. Factors controlling the regional distribution of vanadium in groundwater. Ground Water 48 (4):515-525.

Wu, C., and A. T. Murray. 2007. Population estimation using landsat enhanced thematic mapper imagery. Geographical Analysis 39 (1):26-43.

Wu, K., and C. A. Johnston. 2007. Hydrologic response to climatic variability in a Great Lakes Watershed: A case study with the SWAT model. Journal of Hydrology 337 (1-2):187-199.

Wu, S. Y., R. Najjar, and J. Siewert. 2009. Potential impacts of sea-level rise on the Mid- and Upper-Atlantic Region of the United States. Climatic Change 95 (1-2):121-138.

Wu, W., and G. Shao. 2002. Optimal combinations of data, classifiers, and sampling methods for accurate characterizations of deforestation. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 28 (4):601-609.

Wulder, M. A., S. E. Franklin, J. C. White, J. Linke, and S. Magnussen. 2006. An accuracy assessment framework for large-area land cover classification products derived from medium-resolution satellite data. International Journal of Remote Sensing 27 (4):663-683.

Wulder, M. A., T. Han, J. C. White, C. R. Butson, and R. J. Hall. 2007. An approach for edge matching large-area satellite image classifications. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 33 (1-4):266-277.

Wulder, M. A., J. C. White, T. Han, N. C. Coops, J. A. Cardille, T. Holland, and D. Grills. 2008. Monitoring Canada's forests. Part 2: National forest fragmentation and pattern. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 34 (6):563-584.

Wulder, M. A., J. C. White, J. E. Luther, G. Strickland, T. K. Remmel, and S. W. Mitchell. 2006. Use of vector polygons for the accuracy assessment of pixel-based land cover maps. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 32 (3):268-279.

Wulder, M. A., J. C. White, S. Magnussen, and S. McDonald. 2007. Validation of a large area land cover product using purpose-acquired airborne video. Remote Sensing of Environment 106 (4):480-491.

Wylie, B. K., E. A. Fosnight, T. G. Gilmanov, A. B. Frank, J. A. Morgan, M. R. Haferkamp, and T. P. Meyers. 2007. Adaptive data-driven models for estimating carbon fluxes in the Northern Great Plains. Remote Sensing of Environment 106 (4):399-413.

Xian, G., and M. Crane. 2006. An analysis of urban thermal characteristics and associated land cover in Tampa Bay and Las Vegas using Landsat satellite data. Remote Sensing of Environment 104 (2):147-156.

Xian, G., M. Crane, and D. Steinwand. 2005. Dynamic modeling of Tampa Bay urban development using parallel computing. Computers and Geosciences 31 (7):920-928.

Xiao, X., J. Liu, D. Zhuang, S. Frolking, S. Boles, B. Xu, M. Liu, W. Salas, B. Moore Iii, and C. Li. 2003. Uncertainties in estimates of cropland area in China: A comparison between an AVHRR-derived dataset and a landsat TM-derived dataset. Global and Planetary Change 37 (3-4):297-306.

Xiong, X. J., C. Cao, and G. Chander. 2010. An overview of sensor calibration inter-comparison and applications. Frontiers of Earth Science in China 4 (2):237-252.

Xu, H. 2008. A new remote sensing index for fastly extracting impervious surface information. Geomatics and Information Science of Wuhan University 33 (11):1150-1153.

Xu, H. Q. 2009. Quantitative analysis on the relationship of urban impervious surface with other components of the urban ecosystem. Acta Ecologica Sinica 29 (5):2456-2462.

Yang, B., and M. H. Li. 2011. Assessing planning approaches by watershed streamflow modeling: Case study of The Woodlands; Texas. Landscape and Urban Planning 99 (1):9-22.

Yang, L., C. Huang, C. G. Homer, B. K. Wylie, and M. J. Coan. 2003. An approach for mapping large-area impervious surfaces: Synergistic use of Landsat-7 ETM+ and high spatial resolution imagery. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 29 (2):230-240.

Yang, Limin, Stephen V. Stehman, Jonathan H. Smith, and James D. Wickham. 2001. Thematic accuracy of MRLC land cover for the eastern United States. Review of FT in Sci Dir - no year indicated. Remote Sensing of Environment 76 (3):418-422.

Yanosky, Jeff D., Christopher J. Paciorek, Joel Schwartz, Francine Laden, Robin Puett, and Helen H. Suh. 2008. Spatio-temporal modeling of chronic PM10 exposure for the Nurses' Health Study. Atmospheric Environment 42 (18):4047-4062.

Yates, D., H. Galbraith, D. Purkey, A. Huber-Lee, J. Sieber, J. West, S. Herrod-Julius, and B. Joyce. 2008. Climate warming, water storage, and Chinook salmon in California's Sacramento Valley. Climatic Change 91 (3-4):335-350.

Yetemen, O., E. Istanbulluoglu, and E. R. Vivoni. 2010. The implications of geology, soils, and vegetation on landscape morphology: Inferences from semi-arid basins with complex vegetation patterns in Central New Mexico, USA. Geomorphology 116 (3-4):246-263.

York, A. M., M. Shrestha, C. G. Boone, S. Zhang, J. A. Harrington Jr, T. J. Prebyl, A. Swann, M. Agar, M. F. Antolin, B. Nolen, J. B. Wright, and R. Skaggs. 2011. Land fragmentation under rapid urbanization: A cross-site analysis of Southwestern cities. Urban Ecosystems:1-27.

Yuan, L. L. 2010. Estimating the effects of excess nutrients on stream invertebrates from observational data. Ecological Applications 20 (1):110-125.

Yuan, L. L., and S. B. Norton. 2004. Assessing the relative severity of stressors at a watershed scale. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 98 (1-3):323-349.

Zanoni, Vicki, Tom Stanley, Robert Ryan, Mary Pagnutti, Braxton Baldridge, Spencer Roylance, Greg Snyder, and George Lee. 2003. The Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation team: overview and IKONOS joint characterization approach. Review of FT in Sci Dir - no year indicated. Remote Sensing of Environment 88 (1-2):17-22.

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Zipper, Carl E., Golde I. Holtzman, Patrick F. Darken, Jason J. Gildea, and Roger E. Stewart. 2002. Virginia USA water quality, 1978 to 1995: regional interpretation. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 38 (3):789-802.

Zourarakis, D. P., S. C. Lambert, and M. Palmer. 2003. Towards developing Kentucky's landscape change maps. Cartography and Geographic Information Science 30 (2):175-178.

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NLCD 1992

1992 CONUS

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NLCD 2011


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NLCD 2001


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NLCD-MODIS Land Cover-Albedo

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